Barnes and Enk. Ventilation for low dissipated energy achieved using flow control during both inspiration and expiration. Trends in Anaesthesia and Critical Care 24 (2019); 5-12

Profs Barnes and Enk are the first to actually determine Pressure-volume (PV) loops and to show minimized energy dissipation in a patient ventilated with FCV by Evone. During FCV ventilation, both inspiratory and expiratory flows were kept nearly constant around 12 L/min and the I:E ratio was 1:1 resulting in a minute volume of 6.2 L/min. PV loops were recorded using pressure measured directly within the patient’s trachea and  the energy dissipated in the patient was calculated from the hysteresis area of the PV loops. The energy dissipation was 0.17 J/L, which is even lower than values quoted in literature for spontaneous breathing (0.2-0.7 J/L). They state that FCV may have implications for lung-protective ventilation.